A bunion is a bony deformity that affects the big toe. The big toe becomes angulated towards the lateral side i.e. towards the second toe. It can affect anyone but is more common among females. The reason is simple, they use pointed or narrow width shoes that promote this condition.


The exact cause of the bunion is not known, but it is thought to be the result of the use of narrow and ill-fitting shoes. It can also develop as a consequence of an inherited structural bone defect, stress on the foot or due to some medical conditions.


The first signs of a bunion are redness, swelling and irritation at the base of the big toe. Other signs and symptoms include a bulging bump on the external side of the big toe, skin thickening, pain, callus formation and restricted movement of the big toe.

Treatment (non-surgical)

There is a range of treatment options for the bunion including analgesics, use of modifying footwear and orthotics e.g. bunion pads, toe spacers and insoles.